What are biomarkers
Biomarkers are used to detect and monitor diseases in humans. They can be found in blood, urine, saliva, or other body fluids. Biomarkers may also be present in the cells of a person’s body. The most common biomarkers are proteins that have been altered by disease or injury. Other types include nucleic acids, metabolites, lipids, carbohydrates, hormones, enzymes, antibodies, antigens, etc. The use of biomarkers is called “biological diagnosis,” which refers to the process of identifying an individual patient’s condition based on the presence of one or more biological markers.
How do we measure them?
The measurement of biomarkers depends on their type. For example, protein levels can be measured using immunoassays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, or western blots. Nucleic acid measurements can be done with quantitative PCR. Metabolites can be detected by mass spectrometry. Lipid analysis can be performed using thin-layer chromatography. Hormones can be measured by radioimmunoassay or enzyme-linked immunoadsorption assay. Enzymes can be determined by colorimetric methods. Antibodies can be quantified by ELISA or RIA. Antigen-antibody reactions can detect antigens.
Biomarker testing services
There are different tests depending on a person’s convenience and illness. Below are some common services.
Blood Tests – These tests involve drawing blood from a vein into a syringe containing a special preservative solution. Blood samples are then sent to the lab, where they are analyzed for various biomarkers.
Urine Tests – Urine is collected through catheterization or a clean catch method. A small amount of urine is placed into a container and sent to the lab for analysis.
Saliva Tests – Saliva is collected using cotton swabs. It is usually kept at room temperature until it reaches the lab.
Skin Tests – Skin biopsies are taken from specific areas of the skin. The tissue sample is sent to the lab and analyzed for various infections.
Electrocardiogram – An ECG records the electrical activity of the heart. This test is often used to diagnose arrhythmias and abnormal heartbeat rhythms.
Exercise Testing – Your doctor will give you instructions on how to exercise before performing this test. You’ll need to wear a heart monitor during the test.
Stress Test – This test measures your heart’s response to stress. It involves walking upstairs, climbing a hill, running, or doing other physical activities.
Cardiac Catheterization – This test uses a long tube to examine the inside of your heart. It allows doctors to see if there are any blockages in your arteries or veins.
Biomarker discovery services are designed to help researchers identify new biomarkers and develop novel diagnostic tools. They also provide support for clinical trials that use these biomarkers as endpoints. Discovery aids in the development of new drugs, drug combinations, vaccines, diagnostics, and therapies. Biomarker discovery services include genomics, microarray analysis, transcriptome profiling, and proteomics.
There are many types of tests available to measure biomarkers. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. Some tests are more convenient than others, but all have one thing in common; they provide information about your health. It is important to understand what kind of test you want to get the best results. Medical advice is always given by a physician who has completed a medical school education program and residency training program.